Stone Terminology

Types of Stone

BASALT STONE – A dense textured (aphanitic) igneous rock of a lava flow or minor intrusion composed essentially of labradorite and pyroxene, often displaying a columnar structure. Basalt is relatively high in iron and magnesia minerals and relatively low in silica, generally dark gray to black, and feldspathic. A general term in contradistinction to felsite, a light-colored feldspathic and highly siliceous rock of similar texture and origin.

BLUESTONE – A quarasitic sandstone material which is one of the hardest types of sandstone. The color hues are true blues, lilac, buff and grays. Bluestone is extremely wearable and nonslip. Applications of Bluestone can be paving, pool coping, tiles, countertops and more.

FIELDSTONE – Natural stone used for wall stone and landscaping stone and or boulders. Fieldstone comes in big boulders, headsize and double head size form.

LIMESTONE – is a sedimentary rock composed largely of mineral calcite. The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. These organisms secrete shells that are deposited on ocean floors. Limestone is usually found in ancient sea beds. The original state of limestone is delivered in blocks which is then fabricated for many various types of applications such as paving, pool coping, tiles, fireplaces, countertops and more.

QUARTZITE – A compact granular rock composed of quartz crystals, usually so firmly cemented as to make the mass homogeneous. The stone is generally quarried in stratified layers, the surfaces of which are unusually smooth. Its crushing and tensile strengths are extremely high. The color range is wide.

QUARTZITIC SANDSTONE is an intermediate classification of sandstone that has similar color characteristics of the sandstone and quartzite classifications. Harder than sandstone, yet softer that quartzite, this term describes a vast majority of FSC’s products. This material is very durable and easy for stone masons to work with.

SANDSTONE – A sedimentary rock consisting usually of quartz cemented with silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate. Sandstone is durable, has a very high crushing and tensile strength, and a wide range of colors and textures.

SLATE STONE – A very fine-grained metamorphic rock derived from sedimentary rock shale. Characterized by an excellent parallel cleavage entirely independent of original bedding, by which cleavage the rock may be split easily into relatively thin slabs.

TRAVERTINE – is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs. Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric appearance and exists in white, tan, and cream-colored varieties. It is formed by a process of rapid precipitation of calcium carbonate, often at the mouth of a hot spring or in a limestone cave. Travertine is often used as a building material. The Romans mined deposits of travertine for building temples, aqueducts, monuments, bath complexes, and amphitheaters such as the Colosseum, the largest building in the world constructed mostly of travertine.

TUFA STONE – is a type of limestone which forms in close proximity to bodies of water with a high content of dissolved minerals, especially calcium carbonate. There are a number of uses for tufa, ranging from construction to artwork.

Applications of Stone

ASHLAR PATTERN – Square and rectangular set pattern of cut stone that repeats in multiples. Other commonly used and known are Versailles and Roman patterns.








COBBLESTONE – Any type of stone that is manufactured into square and rectangle individual shapes, generally thicker than the traditional pavers. Applications of Cobblestone can be walkways, pathways, driveways and even roads.

Bluestone Full Color Range with Lilac CUT DIMENSIONAL STONE – Any stone that has been cut to a rectangular or square shape even pattern.

 FLAGSTONE – Made mostly from limestone, sandstone or slate. Flagstone is a flat stone generally used for landscaping or veneering. Thickness can range from .5 – 3”. Sizes of pieces range greatly from hand-sized to full slabs. Flagstone is available random, in cut patterns or customized sizes.

Blue Hickory Split LEDGESTONE – This is a form of a product that consists of any material that has a linear look or are squares and rectangles. Ledgestone looks best when installed in a dry stack style but maybe installed using a mortar joint. Ledgestone can have various types of finishes. See listing below in Stone Finishes